2Department of Environmental Engineering, NED University of Engineering and Technology, Karachi, 75270 Pakistan,
3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Jubail Industrial City 31961, Jubail Industrial College, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
4Department of Mechanical Engineering, King Fahad University of Petroleum & Minerals, 5069 Dhahran 31261, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
In the present era, energy is one of the key players in the sustainable development of a coun-try from the economic, social, and environmental point of views. Saudi Arabia is one of the major oil producers in the world. Therefore, Saudi Arabia is using conventional fossil fuels as the main source of electrical energy generation. However, in order to diversify its economic sources and address environmental issues, the country has planned in Vision 2030 to exploit renewable energy resources. The objective of this study is to analyse the various sources of renewable energy in Saudi Arabia and evaluate the novel artificial photosynthesis technique in more detail. Evidence and data were reviewed from various articles, books, and conference proceedings to support this study. To conclude reviewing this technology, novel artificial pho-tosynthesis techniques were narrowed down to prove how they can be one of the fossil fuel alternatives. Various suggestions have been given to prevent setbacks and to find alternative methods to overcome limiting factors.